A Typology of Violence, from Galtung, J. (1969). Violence, Peace, and Peace Research. Journal of Peace Research, 6(3), 167–191.
I was looking for this image to insert into my research slides and found it on Tumblr of all places. (Didn’t want to take a screenshot of the PDF I have… Even though it’d turn out like this? Anyway.) This is probably one of my favorite ideas in social justice/peace and conflict and reading this paper for the first time was one of the rare occasions where I was really excited about theory.
You should definitely check out Achille Mbembe’s article Necropolitics. I’m not on my laptop at the moment so I can’t check out the details but he brings in Foucault and Bataille in regards to violence and it’s really good. Very different style to Galtung’s but you’re missing out if you don’t read it.
… well being, happiness, work that is well paid and satisfying, and the enjoyment of all types of advantages for those who live in the Marxist paradise. … reality is, nevertheless, very different. … the shortages in the production of goods and the low material and spiritual level of [society], the situation of women and children is dramatic and frankly tragic. … Russian women are to carry out tasks that are extraordinarily hard for them, ones which no civilized country makes people of their sex perform. … don’t worry about women’s lower [than men’s] physical resistance … [women are made to work in] highway [construction] or heavy work on the trains or preparing the fields for cultivation. … women’s physical makeup is not made for these tasks. … [women] have to leave their homes for many hours, leaving their children with other people or with State functionaries. … [Communist women cannot] dedicate themselves to the care and education of their children, who are taught to inform and spy on their parents. Do the women of this country want this paradise for themselves and their families?
Anti-Communist propaganda used by the CIA in the 1964 Chilean election, which saw Allende narrowly defeated for Presidency by the Democratic Christian candidate Frei Montalva.
Quotes taken from:
Power, M. (2008) The Engendering of Anticommunism and Fear in Chile’s 1964 Presidential Election. Diplomatic History, 32(5), pp.931–953.
It is essential to destroy the widespread prejudice that philosophy is a strange and difficult thing just because it is the specific intellectual activity of a particular category of specialists or of professional and systematic philosophers. It must first be shown that all men are “philosophers”, by defining the limits and characteristics of the “spontaneous philosophy” which is proper to everybody. This philosophy is contained in: 1. language itself, which is a totality of determined notions and concepts and not just of words grammatically devoid of content; 2. “common sense” and “good sense”; 3. popular religion and, therefore, also in the entire system of beliefs, superstitions, opinions, ways of seeing things and of acting, which surface collectively under the
name of “folklore”.
GRAMSCI, Antonio. Notebook 11, paragraph 12 (Some preliminary notes of reference)
Is this that twerking thing the kids are talking about?
This gif was like 10x better because when I scrolled across it I had this playing in the background.
Liam Burns (NUS UK President):
One thing we’ve got to understand and get better at is our campaigning techniques. Don’t get me wrong, I do not deride what Quebec students managed to pull off, I’m not saying that the actions in Chile weren’t powerful and inspirational but they are in very, very different political and economic climates. … We are not going to deride those tactics but we need to have 21st-century campaigning when dealing with 21st-century problems …
The Chilean movement only became so radical through a similarly lengthy debate, she says. “2011 was the product of 10 years of debate,” adds Paul Floor Pilquil, Vallejo’s colleague at the University of Chile student union (Fech). A decade ago, he says, Chile’s main student bodies were as bogged down in the smaller issues as they are now in Britain. “But then we started to connect all the specific problems.”
Liam Burns essentially says that Chilean students only saw success because they’re living in some backwards state. Leaders of the Chilean student movement say we’re basically playing catch up with how the NUS is attempting to deal with the issues students in the UK are facing.
I know who I’d rather pay attention to (not the one from the organisation that’s leaving UK students out to dangle over access to free education but the one that’s actually forcing ministerial resignations.)
Quotes taken from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2012/nov/21/student-march-eggs-anger and http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/nov/20/chile-student-rebel-camila-vallejo respectively.